JP Morgan will instruct US staff to register their vaccine status on an internal web portal this week.
Employees who have had both vaccine doses will be allowed to discard facemasks at work.
Staff may be allowed to tick a box saying they would rather not disclose their status – although the bank hopes only a small number will do so.
The move is intended to reassure workers that returning to the office is safe.
Jamie Dimon, the boss of America’s biggest bank, recently said he wanted US staff back in the office from July.
It will also help the bank plan what sort of social distancing regime will be required as all workers will be asked to return for at least some of the week after the 4 July holiday.
The letter will not be going to employees in the UK and Europe as the company says data privacy laws here effectively prevent most employers asking questions about medical status.
JP Morgan’s London offices are currently operating at around 25% occupancy but that is expected to increase after 19 July.
The move by JP Morgan follows that of rival Morgan Stanley who went further by barring staff and clients from entering its New York Offices if they are not fully vaccinated.
The policy comes into effect next month, in a move aimed at allowing the lifting of other Covid-related rules.
An internal memo, first reported by the Financial Times, said: “Starting July 12 all employees, contingent workforce, clients and visitors will be required to attest to being fully vaccinated to access Morgan Stanley buildings in New York City and Westchester.”
Meanwhile, Goldman Sachs bankers were instructed to report their vaccine status ahead of returning to their desks earlier this month.
While a Goldman Sachs memo seen by the BBC strongly encouraged staff to get vaccinated, it stopped short of telling them they must have the jab: “We understand that the choice to get vaccinated is a personal one.”
Last week, the UK government also announced that Covid vaccinations are to become compulsory for staff at care homes in England. Health Secretary Mr Hancock said it was a “sensible and reasonable step” and he would consult on extending it to the NHS.
Employment lawyers at Pinsent Masons told the BBC that making vaccination mandatory could be regarded as a “reasonable instruction” in a social care setting because refusal could put vulnerable people at risk.
“Employers in other sectors arguably do not have the same strong rationale for instructing staff to take the vaccine – for example, professional services, where it has been shown that work can be done effectively from home,” they said.
But they also concede that treating people differently based on their vaccine status could potentially lead to charges of discrimination.
Employment law looks set to be tested in the weeks and months ahead.
The BBC has also learnt that the chief executive of JP Morgan, Jamie Dimon, will not be visiting London on an upcoming trip to Europe because of UK quarantine restrictions.
He will be attending an event for international business leaders called “Choose France” hosted by President Emmanuel Macron at the Palace of Versailles.
France has no quarantine requirements for US travellers who are fully-vaccinated.